Elec 391 electrical engineering design studio ii summer phase2017 amplitude modulation lockedloops page 3 of 3 4. This is the standard engineering reference in the field, now complete with powerful pll design software. The communications industrys big move into wireless in the past two years has made this mature topic red hot again. Since the fpga is an exclusively digital device, the type of device that will be researched in this paper will be the adpll. Garth nash applications engineering abstract the fundamental design concepts for phase. When the comparison is in steadystate, and the output frequency and phase. If you want to learn plls, i suggest a ee course on this topic and a good mentor. The phase locked loop pll has its roots in receiver design. Design of adpll the adpll or all digital phase locked loop came along a few years after the dpll and was an implementation of the pll with all digital components. Phaselocked loop design fundamentals introduction the purpose of this application note is to provide the electronic system designer with the necessary tools to design and evaluate phaselocked loops pll configured with integrated circuits.
Design of cmos phase locked loops by behzad razavi fills this void. Phase locked loop fundamentals the basic form of a phase locked loop pll consists of a voltage controlled oscillator vco, a phase detector pd, and a filter. Its content starts with the number n loaded in parallel from the loop filter. Manualsphaselocked loop design guidepll designguide print version of this book pdf file advanced design system 2001. Locked loop pll basically for synchronization, synthesis of. Contents preface introduction 11 carrier recovery 2 12 clock recovery 3 tracking filter 3 14 frequency demodulation 4 15 phase demodulation 5. Theory and applications crc press book applications of phaselocked loops play an increasingly important role in modern electronic systems, and the last 25 years have seen new developments in the underlying theories as well. The fifth edition of this classic circuit reference comes complete with. Pll design procedure zdesign vco for frequency range of interest and obtain k vco.
The output of the up and down of the pfd are both low when the circuit is locked. Design of phaselocked loop circuits with experiments berlin, howard m. The book is clearly telecommunications based since pll synthesizers are not considered at all used as the course text in earlier 1990s offerings of the course 2. In our circuit, the loop filter consists of two parts. This phase locked loop keeps the generated signal and reference. Elmasry, a fast lock digital phaselocked loop architecture for wireless applications, ieee transactions on circuits and systems ii, pp. After the loop has attained a locked status, the loop still continues in the process but the output of each component is constant. On what integrated circuit technology is the 4046 pll based. Pll circuit in fm transmitter is a closed loop feedback control system. The necessary equations required to evaluate the basic loop performance are given in conjunction with a brief design example.
This design flow process included design and simulation of the componentssystem. The actual circuit of the pll loop filter is generally remarkably simple, but it has a major impact on the performance of the loop. The zero in the numerator of the closedloop transfer function is the frequency in radianss where the gain of the integral and proportional paths are equal. Wolaver worcester polytechnic institute p t r prentice hall, englewood cliffs, new jersey 07632. Once locked, the output frequency f o of vco is identical to f s except for a finite phase difference this phase difference. In the design of the loop filter the choice of values is normally a very careful balance between a number of often.
First time, every time practical tips for phase locked. The fundamental design concepts for phaselocked loops implemented with integrated circuits are outlined. Fundamentals of phase locked loops plls fundamental phase locked loop architecture. The root locus for a typical loop transfer function is found as follows. Design ofmonolithic phaselockedloops and clock recovery. This is too complex to explain in a few paragraphs.
Organized in a logical format, it first introduces the subject in a qualitative manner and discusses key applications. It is a musthave textbook for engineers interested in learning about the subject, and a useful reference for experts. Phaselocked loop design fundamentals application note, rev. Introduction to phaselock loop system modeling by wen li, senior system engineer, advanced analog product group and jason meiners, design manager, mixedsignal product group, texas instruments incorporated 1. Introduction phaselock loops plls have been one of the basic building blocks in modern electronic systems. Fractionalinteger n pll basics edited by curtis barrett wireless communication business unit abstract phase locked loop pll is a fundamental part of radio, wireless and telecommunication technology. The proposed pll is designed using 180 nm cmosvlsi technology with supply voltage of 1. In its most basic configuration, a phaselocked loop compares the phase of a reference signal f ref to the phase of an adjustable feedback signal rf in f 0, as seen in figure 1. The reference clock inputs are often required to meet tight electrical and jitter requirements as the quality of the clock can have a signi cant im. The new fifth edition of the handsdown leader in phaselocked loop design books and perhaps the mostused pll reference on circuit designers desks around the world. The majority of all pll design problems can be approached using the laplace transform technique. To get started down the path to understanding plls, i recommend understanding the block diagram first.
Applications of phaselocked loops play an increasingly important role in modern electronic systems, and the last 25 years have seen new developments in the underlying theories as well. Phase locked loop pll aniruddha chandra ece department, nit durgapur, wb, india. What are the three principal issues in phaselocked loop design. To understand the working of the phase locked loop system, let us consider the fm transmitter, which can be considered as one of the most frequently used pll applications.
Phaselocked loop design fundamentals pages 1 12 text. Cd74act297 digital phaselocked loop schs297d august 1998 revised june 2002 6 post office box 655303 dallas, texas 75265 detailed description continued thus, the simple firstorder phaselocked loop with an adjustable k counter is the equivalent of an analog. It was invented in 1932 as a technique for stabilizing an oscillators frequency. Phase locked loops theory and design chienjung li department of electronic engineering national taipei university of technology 2. Phase locked loop design fundamentals introduction the purpose of this application note is to provide the electronic system designer with the necessary tools to design and evaluate phase locked loops pll configured with integrated circuits. It provides an extremely clear, intuitively appealing, onestop introduction to the subject that is both broad and deep. Carrier recovery the pll tracks color bursts in a tv signal. It will cause the output of the filter a constant value 2. The negativegoing edge of v1 generates a start pulse. Phase locked loops plls are electronic circuits used for frequency control.
Phaselocked loop design fundamentals pages 1 22 text. In the 1960s and 70s, integrated circuit pll chips. Application to coherent receiver design, wiley, new york,1976. Parameter definition phase locked loop design fundamentals application note, rev. Design of phaselocked loop circuits with experiments. The clock, fc, causes the counter to count down to 0. Phase locked loop design free download as powerpoint presentation. Presentation outline what is phase locked loop pll.
Outline frequency synthesis techniques frequency synthesizers based on the phaselockedloop pll loop analysis and stability components in a pll noise. Phase locked loop design kyoungtae kang, kyusun choi. Jan 24, 2009ece department, winter school on nit durgapur vlsi systems design 2. Cmos phaselockedloop applications using the cd5474hchct4046a and cd5474hchct7046a w. Once locked, pll tracks the frequency changes of the input. A phaselocked loop is a feedback system combining a voltage controlled oscillator vco and a phase comparator so connected that the oscillator maintains a constant phase angle relative to a reference signal. Digital phase locked loop devon fernandez and sanjeev manandhar december 8, 2003 1. Although the parameters of the filter restrict the loop capture range and speed, it would be impossible for the phaselocked loop to lock without it. Phaselocked loop design fundamentals published by guset user, 20150511 00.
Phaselocked loop engineering handbook for integrated. What is phase locked loop pll pll is an electronic module circuit that locks the phase of the output to the input. The output signal, f out, has the same phase andor frequency as f ref. Find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate. This paper focuses on the design and simulation of a phase locked loop pll which is used in communication circuits to select the desired frequency channel. The design of the pll, loop filter is crucial to the operation of the whole phase locked loop. Kuznetsov and others published phase locked loops design and analysis.
The adpll is a digital loop in two senses all digital. Phaselocked loops presents the latest information on the basic theory and applications of plls. Phaselocked loop pll is a technique which has contributed significantly toward the technology advancement in communication and motor servo control systems in the past 30 years. In figure 2 there is a negative feedback control loop operating in the frequency domain.1223 1169 225 996 3 1049 1464 962 54 1012 928 254 856 1356 1318 311 1278 845 429 950 1490 736 848 769 1324 177 603 233 1135 704 475 401 161 681 985 1332 363